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Ellington, Duke

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Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington was the most prolific composer of the
twentieth century in terms of both number of compositions and variety of
forms. His development was one of the most spectacular in the history of
music, underscored by more than fifty years of sustained achievement as an
artist and an entertainer. He is considered by many to be America's greatest
composer, bandleader, and recording artist.

The extent of Ellington's innovations helped to redefine the various forms
in which he worked. He synthesized many of the elements of American music -
the minstrel song, ragtime, Tin Pan Alley tunes, the blues, and American
appropriations of the European music tradition - into a consistent style
with which, though technically complex, has a directness and a simplicity of
expression largely absent from the purported art music of the twentieth
century. Ellington's first great achievements came in the three-minute song
form, and he later wrote music for all kinds of settings: the ballroom, the
comedy stage, the nightclub, the movie house, the theater, the concert hall,
and the cathedral. His blues writing resulted in new conceptions of form,
harmony, and melody, and he became the master of the romantic ballad and
created numerous works that featured the great soloists in his jazz
orchestra.

Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington (April 29, 1899 – May 24, 1974) was an American composer, pianist, and big band leader.

Duke Ellington became one of the most influential artists in the history of recorded music, and is largely recognized as one of the greatest figures in the history of jazz, though his music stretched into various other genres, including blues, gospel, movie soundtracks, popular, and classical. His career spanned five decades and included leading his orchestra, composing an inexhaustible songbook, scoring for movies, and world tours. Due to his inventive use of the orchestra, or big band, and in part to his refined public manner and extraordinary charisma, he is generally considered to have elevated the perception of jazz to an artistic level on par with that of classical music. His reputation increased after his death, and he received a special award citation from the Pulitzer Prize Board in 1999.[1]

Ellington called his music "American Music" rather than jazz, and liked to describe those who impressed him as "beyond category."[2] These included many of the musicians who were members of his orchestra, some of whom are considered among the best in jazz in their own right, but it was Ellington who melded them into one of the most well-known jazz orchestral units in the history of jazz. He often composed specifically for the style and skills of these individuals, such as "Jeep's Blues" for Johnny Hodges, "Concerto for Cootie" for Cootie Williams, which later became "Do Nothing Till You Hear from Me" with Bob Russell's lyrics, and "The Mooche" for Tricky Sam Nanton and Bubber Miley. He also recorded songs written by his bandsmen, such as Juan Tizol's "Caravan" and "Perdido" which brought the 'Spanish Tinge' to big-band jazz. Several members of the orchestra remained there for several decades. After 1941, he frequently collaborated with composer-arranger-pianist Billy Strayhorn, whom he called his "writing and arranging companion."[3] Ellington recorded for many American record companies, and appeared in several films.

Ellington led his band from 1923 until his death in 1974. His son Mercer Ellington, who had already been handling all administrative aspects of his father's business for several decades, led the band until his own death from cancer in 1996. At that point, the band dissolved. Paul Ellington, Mercer's youngest son and executor of the Duke Ellington estate,[4] kept "The Duke Ellington Orchestra." going from Mercer's death onwards. [5]

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